Kutipan dari Wikipedia (silakan browse sendiri) tentang beberapa variasi pemikiran sosialis. Kita jangan terjebak dalam perdebatan wacana ini, yang oleh Wittgenstein disebutkan sebagai a language game. Untuk menambah pengetahuan boleh saja, tetapi rakyat miskin dan planet yang akan punah ini tak akan menjadi lebih baik dengan perdebatan ini.
The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it. (Karl Marx, Thesis 11)
Political philosophies commonly described as libertarian socialist include: many varieties of anarchism (including anarchist communism, anarchist collectivism, anarcho-syndicalism and some forms of individualist anarchism), mutualism, social ecology, and council communism (or even communism itself, as it is described by Karl Marx or Lenin in a further stage of development of socialism). The terms anarchist communism and libertarian communism should not be considered synonyms for libertarian socialism. Some scholars use libertarian socialism synonymously with anarchism.
Among those definitions of democratic socialism which sharply distinguish it from social democracy, Peter Hain, for example, classes democratic socialism, along with libertarian socialism, as a form of anti-authoritarian “socialism from below” (using the term popularised by Hal Draper), in contrast to Stalinism and social democracy, variants of authoritarian state socialism. For him, this democratic/authoritarian divide is more important than the revolutionary/reformist divide. In this definition, it is the active participation of the population as a whole, and workers in particular, in the management of economy that characterises democratic socialism, while nationalisation and economic planning (whether controlled by an elected government or not) are characteristic of state socialism. A similar, but more complex, argument is made by Nicos Poulantzas.
In contrast, in other definitions, democratic socialism simply refers to all forms of socialism that follow an electoral, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism, rather than a revolutionary one.
Indeed, some proponents of market socialism see the latter as a form of democratic socialism. A variant of this second set of definitions is Joseph Schumpeter’s argument, set out in Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1941) that liberal democracies were evolving from “liberal capitalism” into democratic socialism, with the growth of workers’ self-management, industrial democracy and regulatory instutions.
is a political ideology of the left and centre-left. It emerged in the late 19th century out of the socialist movement, and continues to be influential in many developed and developing nations. It advocates the creation of a democratic welfare state that combines capitalist and socialist institutions and practices. Unlike others on the left, such as Marxists, who seek to challenge the capitalist system more fundamentally, social democrats aim to reform capitalism democratically through state regulation and the creation of programs that work to counteract or remove claimed injustices. Some consider social democracy to be a moderate form of socialism, though others reject that designation.
is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought. Although it is technically possible for any person living at any time in history to be a utopian socialist, the term is most often applied to those utopian socialists who lived in the first quarter of the 19th century. From the mid-19th century onwards, the other branches of socialism overtook the utopian version in terms of intellectual development and number of supporters. Utopian socialists were important in the formation of modern movements for intentional community and cooperatives.
Utopian socialists never actually used this name to describe themselves; the term “utopian socialism” was introduced by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (in The Communist Manifesto) and used by later socialist thinkers to describe early socialist or quasi-socialist intellectuals who created hypothetical visions of perfect egalitarian and communalist societies without actually concerning themselves with the manner in which these societies could be created or sustained.
Marx and Engels used the term “scientific socialism” to describe the type of socialism they saw themselves developing. According to Engels, socialism was not “an accidental discovery of this or that ingenious brain, but the necessary outcome of the struggle between two historically developed classes – the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Its task was no longer to manufacture a system of society as perfect as possible, but to examine the historico-economic succession of events from which these classes and their antagonism had of necessity sprung, and to discover in the economic conditions thus created the means of ending the conflict.”
Critics have argued that utopian socialists who established experimental communities were in fact trying to apply the scientific method to human social organization, and were therefore not utopian. For instance, Joshua Muravchik stated that science is “the practice of experimentation, of hypothesis and test,” and argued that “Owen and Fourier and their followers were the real ‘scientific socialists.’ They hit upon the idea of socialism, and they tested it by attempting to form socialist communities.” Muravchik further argued that, in contrast, Marx made untestable predictions about the future, and that Marx’s view that socialism would be created by impersonal historical forces may lead one to conclude that it is unnecessary to strive for socialism, because it will happen anyway.
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